Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Symphony No. 38, referred to as the “Prague” Symphony, reflects his symphonic style at its most sophisticated. This work was originally performed in Prague with gratitude for the Bohemian people that held him in high esteem. The Requiem was left unfinished at Mozart’s death, inciting several years of controversy, including a claim by his widow that he was writing it for his own funeral.
(b. January 27, 1756 in Salzburg; d. December 5, 1791 in Vienna)
The perspicacious and scholarly program annotator for the Chicago Symphony Phillip Huscher has for more than a decade generally omitted a middle name for Mozart. For reasons that will be apparent, I follow his lead here. On his baptismal record Mozart’s middle name is given as Theophilus—Greek for God love. In his childhood it was more usual to use the German version, Gottlieb. Liturgical custom put names on church records that were rarely seen in secular contexts. Moreover translating names to fit the audience was fairly common in those days. Ludwig van Beethoven, for example, used Louis in France and Luigi in Italy because his publishers thought it burnished his image to the natives.
Mozart learned both French and Italian early in his life, so render his name in another language? Yes, indeed. Typically he wrote out his full name as Wolfgang Amadè Mozart. We have it that way in his own hand on his marriage contract for one. The times he used Amadeus, the Latin version, he was being silly, adding -us to all parts of his name and many other words as well, Wolfgangus Amadeus Mozartus.
This CSO program features late Mozart works. Even with his short lifespan it is easy to see how youthful precociousness flowered into full maturity. His last symphonies (he wrote 40) are generally longer with more depth. His very last works including the Requiem suggest there was a still-evolving Mozart. We get glimpses of music where his facile genius is subordinated to an ideal where he struggles to convey problematic and difficult musical thought. Although we can mourn what might have been, perhaps it was a gift he began so young that he still had enough time to leave an incomparable legacy.
Symphony No. 38 in D Major, “Prague,” K. 504
Musical scholarship can take a century or more to get it right sometimes. In 1907 it was discovered that Mozart wrote only the slow introduction to his so-called Symphony No. 37. That long after the fact, no one wanted to renumber his last four symphonies. So his 37th symphony, the Prague, remains number 38.
For a few years leading up to 1786 Mozart had concentrated on works—piano concertos and the like—he could perform at concerts he arranged. The money rolled in, funding Mozart’s penchant for rich living. Then 1786 brought The Marriage of Figaro, his first collaboration with his famous librettist, Lorenzo da Ponte. Because Mozart had rock-star status among Bohemians, Figaro performances in Prague were arranged soon after its premiere in Vienna. Counting on an enthusiastic welcome, he brought with him something extra, Symphony No. 38. Its premiere in Prague was January 1787.
Musically the Prague Symphony shows Mozart tweaking his usual formula. The opening movement has a slow introduction, just the second of his symphonies to do this, all of them late works (nos. 36 & 39 were the others). He also leaves out the minuet and trio movement typically found in his other symphonies.
The first movement is rich with themes and contrapuntal intricacy. Fragments evoke Figaro without being overt quotations. The middle movement is gracious. Its sense of movement, quicker than most slow movements, combined with the 6/8 meter makes it seem like a hybrid designed to stand in partly for the missing minuet.
What was suggested in the first movement is explicit in the last. It begins with a direct Figaro quotation from Cherubino and Susanna’s energetic duet that occurs before the finale of the second act. In the last movement he shows his fans a rollicking good time!
Requiem Mass in D Minor, K. 626
The world is filled with mysteries and possible conspiracies. Did Lee Harvey Oswald act alone to assassinate JFK? How did Amelia Earhart meet her end? The circumstances around how Mozart’s Requiem commission was to be carried out, how much music did he write down on “little scraps of paper” instead of in his manuscript, what did he convey as he lay dying to those around him about finishing the work, these are enduring mysteries that musicologists and historians still squabble over.
The 1979 play and its 1984 movie adaptation Amadeus succeeded in making a large audience aware that legends surround the requiem. Caveat emptor. The Amadeus story shows Mozart as a bon vivant, sometimes profane and given to silliness. It goes on to imply that Antonio Salieri was vengefully driving him to write the requiem for his own death and soon, but these conspiracy ideas are rather silly, too. Amadeus the play and Amadeus the name—take both with good humor and neither as good history.
There are facts we do know that are provocative enough. The commission came from a minor nobleman Count Franz von Walsegg, probably in the spring. Walsegg’s wife died on St. Valentine’s Day 1791 at age 20 and he wanted a requiem to honor her memory. He probably intended to pass off the work as his own as he had done with some other pieces.
By the fall of 1791 Mozart had received half payment, 250 florins, comparable to a down payment on a full opera, a very handsome commission. However, at the same time, Mozart was busy with other projects. His lavish lifestyle demanded a steady stream of generous payments that had tailed off during 1788-90. Given his financial situation, he took on still more. In July, before he finished his final opera The Magic Flute, he accepted a commission for another opera, La clemenza di Tito. Other work stopped and he finished it quickly, supervising its first performance in Prague in September. Then after finishing The Magic Flute, he finally gave attention to his requiem starting October 8. After declining health made him bedridden on November 20, he gave associates around him some instructions, but what they were and how detailed—that’s much less clear. When he died two weeks later, only the opening movement was complete.
Much confusion around Requiem’s completion was introduced by Mozart’s widow Constanze. She wanted the full final payment for the completed work and tried very hard to create the impression that her husband had virtually finished it. Thus whatever was not set in his own hand was by his explicit instruction. She succeeded in this. When presented with a manuscript dated 1792 and a forged Mozart signature, Walsegg paid off the balance. Constanze crossed him up in one regard. She arranged a first performance of Requiem as a memorial benefit, thus denying Walsegg the chance to claim the work as his own.
Constanze first called upon Mozart’s dear friend Joseph Leopold Eybler to complete it. He began work but, unable or perhaps unwilling to complete it, Eybler was replaced by Mozart’s student Franz Xaver Süssmayr. Detailed examination of the manuscript shows that Süssmayr did an enormous amount of work, orchestrating what Mozart had sketched and writing three complete movements, Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei. To end it, in a master stroke, he reused the first two movements recast a bit with different words to create the last movement, Lux aeterna.
That completes the story of Requiem as it is still usually performed. With so much music not written by Mozart and with additional sketches (principally an Amen chorus) being rediscovered, many others have done alternate completions, often effectively, that have garnered their own zealous supporters.
Finally something must be said about how it is that a relatively little bit of Mozart yielded such a popular work that’s invariably referred to with respect if not outright reverence. Mozart had in fact defined a massive architecture of musical thought with implications far beyond the few notes he had put on the page. In a new kind of juxtaposition he used Baroque counterpoint as an intricate and integral part of his composition combined with forward-looking Romanticism. It is a tribute to his teaching and some luck that his student had the ability and dedication to keep faith with his vision.
(c)2013 by Steven Hollingsworth, Creative Commons Public Attribution 3.0 United States License.
As the winner of competitions sponsored by the National Federation of Music Clubs, Metropolitan Opera, New York University, Gerda Lissner Foundation, Downbeat Magazine, and Connecticut Opera Guild, and as finalist in the Metropolitan Opera Mid-South Region, American Traditions Competition, International Opera Singer Competition, and Career Bridges Grant Awards with the Schuyler Foundation for Career Bridges, Inc., Mela (mee-la) Dailey has command of both her instrument and the stage. Ms. Dailey has received recognition in a wide variety of musical genres including opera, oratorio, art song, musical theater, vocal jazz, gospel, country, and popular music. Ms. Dailey made her professional debut at Carnegie Hall in 2003 with the Grammy nominated Conspirare Company of Voices directed by Craig Hella Johnson, a group with whom she also recorded CDs at Skywalker Ranch in California and Troy Savings Bank in New York for national release on the Harmonia Mundi and Clarion labels. She has been a recipient of the New York University Talent Scholarship for achievement in musical theater, a winner of the Second Annual University of Texas Opera Gala Aria Competition, and was selected as a New Young Artist with the Victoria Bach Festival (TX).
Mela sang the role of Tina in Jonathan Dove’s opera Flight with Austin Lyric Opera in April 2011. She also took part in a jazz concert in Klagenfurt, Austria and made her debuts with the Dallas Wind Symphony, Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, and the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra. At the Georgetown (TX) Festival of the Arts she sang Brahms’ German Requiem and performed several concerts around the US with cellist Scott Kluksdahl beginning with the Helps Festival of Music in Tampa.
Mela’s debut CD with Scott entitled Shelter was released on the Pierian label (internationally distributed by the Naxos) to wide acclaim in 2012 and is available through Amazon.com and iTunes.
The 2012-13 was Ms. Dailey’s busiest season to date, beginning with solos in Debussy’s La damoiselle elue and Poulenc’s Gloria in a return to the Georgetown Festival, a Midwest tour with Conspirare, solo debuts with the Spokane and Edmonton Symphonies, a Florida chamber music tour, a Conspirare France tour with performances in Paris, Normandy, and St. Lo for the Polyfollia Festival, a return engagement with the Dallas Wind Symphony, an all-Russian CD recording with Conspirare for Harmonia Mundi, and a tour with Grammy nominee Seraphic Fire. In the Fall of 2012, Ms. Dailey was a soloist in the premiere performances and Naxos recording of Pulitzer Prize winning composer Kevin Puts To Touch the Sky. For the 2013-2014 season, Ms. Dailey will make her debut with the Chattanooga Symphony in the Mozart Requiem, return for concerts with the Edmonton Symphony, and will be soloist in the Verdi Requiem with the Austin Symphony.
Previous operatic performances include the roles of Ines in Il Trovatore, Countess Ceprano (and covering Gilda) in Rigoletto, and Ida (also covering Adele) in Die Fledermaus with Austin Lyric Opera, Adina in L’Elisir d’Amore and Musetta in La Bohème with the Opera Company of Brooklyn, the title role of Semele at the Staunton Music Festival (VA), and Frasquita in Carmenwith the Amarillo Opera. She has performed scenes from Don Giovanni, Die Lustige Witwe and Die Fledermaus with the Wichita Falls Symphony Orchestra (TX) as well as La Traviata,Rigoletto, La Bohème, Die Fledermaus, The Tales of Hoffmann, Lakmé, Linda di Chamounix, and Louise in opera galas with Austin Lyric Opera and the Britt Festival Orchestra (OR). With the Austin Symphony Orchestra she sang the role of Sophie in the Act 3 Trio and Finale from Der Rosenkavalier. She has also appeared in concert with the Carinthian Symphony Orchestra of Klagenfurt, Austria and was Artist-in-Residence with the Amarillo Opera.
Oratorio appearances include Handel’s Messiah with the Austin Symphony Orchestra, Handel’s Samson, Bach’s Magnificat and Schubert’s Mass in A-flat with Chorus Austin, and Dvorak’sStabat Mater with the Georgetown Festival of the Arts.
Ms. Dailey has been heard in recital at the Puigcerda Festival in Spain, and in the summer of 2008 she joined tenor Robert White, composer Lowell Liebermann, soprano Martina Arroyo, violinist Timothy Fain, pianist Inon Barnatan, cellist Scott Kluksdahl, and flutist Marya Martin for the Metropolitan Opera sponsored Mediterranean Music Festival which started in Athens and finished in Venice. Her recital work has also taken her to Minneapolis, Louisville, Lexington, Roanoke, and San Antonio. Mela’s Austin performances often include pianists Anton Nel and Rick Rowley.
Passionate about many charities and causes, Mela has raised over $100,000 for Austin groups including Life Works, Austin Lyric Opera, Austin’s After School Arts Programs, GLBT Alliance, Historical Organ Restoration, Honor Our Heroes, an Alzheimer’s care facility called House of Friends, and many more. In November 2011, she headlined the Survivors Brunch Concert for The Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure.
Ms. Dailey thoroughly enjoys her job as Director of Contemporary Arts at First United Methodist Church in Austin, Texas and leads Sunday evening service at 6:30pm. For more information go to www.fumc.org.
Mezzo-soprano Mary Creswell appears throughout the United States in opera, oratorio, and chamber music. Her active and varied performing schedule includes the operatic roles of Dorabella, Rosina, and Carmen. Her rich mezzo sound has been heard on the concert stage with the Detroit Symphony, Grand Rapids Symphony, Manchester Symphony, Des Moines Symphony, Austin Symphony, South Carolina Philharmonic, and regularly with orchestras at the Interlochen Center for the Arts. The orchestrated songs of Mahler, Verdi’s Requiem, and Jeremiah Symphony by Bernstein are gems in her repertoire. She is a frequent guest soloist with the American Chamber Players and is engaged with them in prestigious concert series spanning the country.
Lauded for her extremely versatile voice, Ms. Creswell effortlessly makes the transition from opera house and orchestra hall to chamber music and song recital. She has been described as having an inner pliability on stage, which transcends all boundaries. Her programs flow from Brahms and Ravel to folk songs and humor without missing a beat. She has also been a champion of new music and featured on several recordings under the Albany Label.
She received her early training at the University of Michigan where she was the recipient of the Elisabeth Schwarzkopf-Walter Legge Scholarship for graduate study. Her teachers at Michigan were Beverley Rinaldi and Eugene Bossart. The Metropolitan Opera chose her as a regional finalist, and she has been a guest performer in New York City’s Avery Fisher Hall. Recent performances include the Beethoven Missa Solemnis, Symphony Number Nine, and Mahler’s Symphony Number Eight.
An enthusiastic teacher of singing, Ms. Creswell served on the faculty of the Interlochen Summer Arts Camp for twenty seasons. She is now Associate Professor of Music at Iowa State University where she teaches voice and directs opera. Her students have been finalist in The Metropolitan Opera Auditions and are heard on Broadway stages and in opera houses throughout the country and Europe.
Kevin Hanrahan has performed nationally and internationally in opera, oratorio, and recital performances. Some favorite roles have been Tamino in Die Zauberflöte, Sam Polk in Susannah, Ferrando in Così fan tutte, Alfred in Die Fledermaus, Harold Hill in The Music Man, and Harlequin and the Soldier in Viktor Ullmann’s Der Kaiser von Atlantis. Dr. Hanrahan has performed the Mozart Requiem, Bach’s Magnificat, both sets of Mozart Vespers, Mozart’s Coronation Mass, the Messiah, Gounod’s St. Cecilia Mass, Haydn’s Lord Nelson Mass and Mendelssohn’s Elijah.
A frequent recitalist, Dr. Hanrahan has performed in Pittsburgh, Phoenix, Scottsdale, and throughout Austria and India. Highlights include Weill und Brech, Liederabend in Graz, Austria, Schubert’s Die Schöne Müllerin with fortepiano in Phoenix, AZ and Lincoln, NE, and Beethoven’s An die ferne Geliebte in Pune and Mumbai, India. In January of 2007 Dr. Hanrahan along with pianist Roberta Swedien performed Schubert’s Die Schöne Müllerin in Pune and Mumbai, India, and were the first perform Schubert’s masterpiece in over 50 years with the last performance given by Peter Pears and Benjamin Britten. As a founding member of the Vocal Chamber Ensemble, Lyrika, Dr. Hanrahan has performed Brahm’s Liebeslieder Walzer, Barber’s A Hand of Bridge, and John Greer’s Liebesleid-Lieder Waltzes. Dr. Hanrahan has performed as a soloist with the Opera Theatre of Pittsburgh, the Lyric Opera Theater at Arizona State University, the Catalina Chamber Orchestra, the Arizona State University Chamber Orchestra, the Phoenix Bach Choir, the AIMS Festival Orchestra in Graz, Austria, The Poona Music Society in India, Abendmusik in Lincoln, the McKeesport Symphony, the Lincoln Symphony, and the Denver Philharmonic Orchestra.
Dr. Hanrahan has worked with numerous influential conductors including Robert Page, Charles Bruffy, David Stocker, and Gunther Schuller, as well several esteemed directors such as Elizabeth Bachman, Rhoda Levine, Gregory Lehane and Graham Whitehead. Dr. Hanrahan has held teaching positions at Arizona State University, Scottsdale Community College, and Grand Canyon University. As a researcher and teacher, Dr. Hanrahan has presented at national and international conferences including the National Association of Teachers of Singing National Conventions in 2006 and 2010. At the 2010 conference his paper on the use of the voice range profile and tessituragram received the Best Poster Paper Award. He has also presented at the International Congress of Voice Teachers (2009) in Paris, France and (2013) in Brisbane, Australia, The Phenomenon of Singing International Symposium (2009) in Newfoundland, Canada, and the International Society of Music Education World Conference (2006) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, (2008) in Bologna, Italy, (2010) in Beijing, China, (2012) in Thessaloniki, Greece. Dr. Hanrahan is also published in the Journal of Singing published by the National Association of Teachers of Singing. He has given masterclasses/workshop sessions in India. In addition to his research and concert presentation, Dr. Hanrahan is the founder of the UNL School of Music Voice Lab. Future research activities include continuing investigating the relationship between the second vowel formant and adduction, the effect of hearing in the training of singing, and the use of technology to assess vocal potential in young singers.
Dr. Hanrahan currently holds the position of Associate Professor of Voice and Voice. His students go on to continue their studies with assistantships at prestigious institutions such as the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music and Northwestern University, with apprenticeships with Central City Opera, Glimmerglass Opera, Des Moines Metro Opera, and the Domingo-Cafritz Young Artist Program at Washington Opera. They can be heard on the stages of opera companies such as Arizona Opera, Kentucky Opera, and Virginia Opera.
Jeffrey L Jones
Jeffrey L. Jones, baritone, is well versed in both stage and concert repertoire. Stage credits include: Emile De Becque in South Pacific, Papageno in Magic Flute, Escamillo inCarmen, Belcore in Elixir of Love, Father in Hansel and Gretel, Tarquinius in Rape of Lucretia, Marquis de la Force in Les Dialogues des Carmélites, Melchior in Amahl and the Night Visitors, Baron Douphol in La Traviata, Mr. Gobineau in The Medium, and Assan in The Consul. Highlights of concert and oratorio solo credits: Passion According to St. John and B Minor Mass (Bach), Requiem (Brahms), Te Deum (Bruckner), Requiem (Duruflé), Requiem (Fauré), Messe Solennelle (Gounod), Messiah and Dettingen Te Deum (Handel), Paukenmesse and Nelsonmesse (Haydn), Elijah (Mendelssohn), Mass in G (Schubert), Encounters (Schuller) and Serenade to Music (Vaughan Williams).
He has performed with Arizona Opera, Arizona State Lyric Opera Theater, Atlanta Opera, Atlanta Lyric Opera, Atlanta Symphony Chorus, Atlanta Symphony Chamber Chorus, Capitol City Opera, Carolina Master Chorale, Collegium Vocale, Meridian Chorale, the Phoenix Chorale and the Robert Shaw Chamber Singers. As a member of the Atlanta Symphony Chorus, he participated in three recordings for Telarc Records and performed in two concerts at Carnegie Hall with Robert Shaw. Jeffrey is currently the Artist-in-Residence with the Carolina Master Chorale in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.
Jeffrey is a member of the music department faculty at Coastal Carolina University in South Carolina. He has taught at Grand Canyon University, the Arizona State University Herberger College-at-Large, and served as a voice coach at Arizona State University during the fall of 2006. Jeffrey was awarded a Doctorate of Musical Arts in vocal performance at Arizona State University where he also received a Master of Music in opera performance. He earned a Bachelor of Music degree from the University of North Texas and is a graduate of the Interlochen Arts Academy. During his studies, Jeffrey worked with the following teachers and coaches: Andrew Campbell, Jerry Doan, Harold Heiberg, Walter Huff, Jeffrey Norris, Juanita Peters, William Reber and Eckart Sellheim.
The Chattanooga Symphony & Opera Chorus includes professional and amateur musicians from the Tri-State Region and has been performing for over 50 years. The CSO Chorus repertoire ranges from La Boheme to The Music of Queen.
“phenomenal with incredible energy and careful attention to vocal and instrumental detail”
by the Chattanooga Times Free Press, this volunteer chorus gives their time and talents to create exceptional music. Darrin Hassevoort, CSO Director of Choruses, has lea the CSO chorus for over 10 seasons.
Notes from the CSO Audience
Prague Philharmonia performance of Mozart’s Symphony No. 38 “Prague”
Performance of Mozart Requiem